Book Chapters

Political Realism, Terrorism, and the Logic of Deterrence,” in The Edinburgh Companion to Political Realism, Robert Schuett and Miles Hollingworth, (eds.), (Edinburgh University Press, 2018).

Political realism is a highly diverse body of international relations theory. This substantial reference work examines political realism in terms of its history, its scientific methodology and its normative role in international affairs. 

Split into three sections, it covers the 2000-year canon of realism: the different schools of thought, the key thinkers and how it responds to foreign policy challenges faced by individual states and globally. It brings political realism up-to-date by showing where theory has failed to keep up with contemporary problems and suggests how it can be applied and adapted to fit our new, globalised world order. 

The Changing Character of Transnational Terrorism: Europe in the Crosshairs,” in The Handbook of European Defence Policies & Armed Forces, Marco Wyss and Hugo Meijer (eds.), (Oxford University Press, 2018).

 The armed forces of Europe have undergone a dramatic transformation since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Handbook of European Defence Policies and Armed Forcesprovides the first geographically and thematically comprehensive presentation and analysis of the evolution and current state of the national security and defence policies, strategies, doctrines, capabilities, and military operations, as well as the alliances and security partnerships of European armed forces in response to the security challenges Europe has faced since the end of the Cold War.

A truly cross-European comparison of the evolution of national defence policies and armed forces remains a glaring blind spot in the existing literature. The Handbook of European Defence Policies and Armed Forces aims to fill this gap by gathering contributions by leading and emerging scholars on European defence and international security from around the world. It is organized in six parts that focus respectively on: country-based assessments of the evolution of the national defence policies of Europe's major, medium and lesser powers since the end of the Cold War; the alliances and security partnerships developed by European states to cooperate in the provision of national security; the array of security challenges faced by European states and their armed forces, ranging from inter-state through intra-state and transnational, to emerging security challenges; the national security strategies and doctrines developed in response to these challenges; the military capabilities, and the underlying defence and technological industrial base, brought to bear to support national strategies and doctrines; and, finally, the national or multilateral military operations by European armed forces. The contributions to The Handbook collectively demonstrate the fruitfulness of giving analytical precedence back to the comparative study of national defence policies and armed forces across Europe.

Canada and the Arab Islamists: Plus ça change …” in The West and the Muslim Brotherhood after the Arab Spring, Lorenzo Vidino (ed.), (Washington, DC: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 2013).

Few observers foresaw the Arab Spring, but it should not have surprised anyone that the Islamist movements – the most organized movements in the Arab world – became the main beneficiaries of the turmoil that ensued. Islamism, in its gradualist and pragmatic approach embodied by the Muslim Brotherhood and its offshoots worldwide, seems ready to reap the rewards of its three decades-old decision to abandon violence and focus on grassroots activities. This monumental change has created many concerns among liberals, religious minorities and, more generally, all non-Islamists in the countries where Islamists have won. In addition, Arab states ruled by non-Islamist regimes have expressed concern. The former worry that Islamist ideology – even in its more contemporary, pragmatic form – remains deeply divisive and anti-democratic, often at odds with their values and interests. The latter believe that on foreign policy issues, most of the positions of various Brotherhood-inspired parties are on a collision course with the policies of established regimes in the region. 

Counter-Coercion, the Power of Failure, and the Practical Limits of Deterring Terrorism,” (with Frank Harvey), “Linking Deterrence to Terrorism: Promises and Pitfalls,” (with Andreas Wenger), & “Deterring Terrorism: Moving Forward,” (with Andreas Wenger) in Deterring Terrorism: Theory and Practice, Andreas Wenger and Alex Wilner (eds.), (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012).

During the Cold War, deterrence theory was the cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, however, popular wisdom dictated that terrorist organizations and radical fanatics could not be deterred—and governments shifted their attention to combating terrorism rather than deterring it.

This book challenges that prevailing assumption and offers insight as to when and where terrorism can be deterred. It first identifies how and where theories of deterrence apply to counterterrorism, highlighting how traditional and less-traditional notions of deterrence can be applied to evolving terrorist threats. It then applies these theoretical propositions to real-world threats to establish the role deterrence has within a dynamic counterterrorism strategy—and to identify how metrics can be created for measuring the success of terrorism deterrence strategies. In sum, it provides a foundation for developing effective counterterrorism policies to help states contain or curtail the terrorism challenges they face.

Counter-capability and Counter-motivation: Combating Terrorism in Canada” in Canada’s National Security Strategy in the Post-9/11 World: Strategy, Interest, and Threats, David McDonough (ed.) (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2012).

 After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, which targeted the heart of financial and military power in the United States, Canada once again proved its credentials as a key American ally. With the imminent end of its combat role in Afghanistan, however, it is time to take stock of how Canada has adapted to the exigencies of the post-9/11 world and to consider the future directions for its foreign, defence, and security policies.

This timely exploration and re-assessment of Canada's approach to strategic affairs offers a diverse set of nuanced, sometimes controversial, and always insightful perspectives on the most pressing security challenges that Canada currently faces. Bringing together noted experts on these issues – including a Canadian Senator, a past Minister of National Defence, former high-level military officers, and top scholars - this collection provides powerful ideas and guidance for the difficult task of formulating an overarching national security strategy.

The End of Deterrence? Thoughts on Hans Kristensen’s Counterproliferation and US Nuclear Strategy,” in U.S. Nuclear Strategy, and the Implications for Global Security, David McDonough (ed.) (Halifax: Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, 2009).

 This edited volume brings together the proceedings of a policy workshop in which Canadian and American strategic thinkers and arms control experts discussed recent US nuclear weapon developments. Difference facets of US nuclear strategy are examined, touching on such diverse issues as counter-proliferation doctrine, missile defence systems, NATO nuclear weapon policies, strategic nuclear stability, American grand strategy and Canada-US relations. What is the current status of US nuclear strategy and deterrence? What are the implications of current US nuclear developments to global security? What are Canadian strategic interests and what impact will these developments have on Canada's international security policy? The chapters in this volume seek to answer these and other salient questions.

 “Freshwater Scarcity and Hydropolitical Conflict:  Between the Science of Freshwater and the Politics of Conflict,” in Perspectives on War: Volume 3, Laurel Halladay (ed.), (Calgary: Society for Military and Strategic Studies, 2005). [Reprint from Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 8:1 2005].

This paper evaluates and assesses hydropolitical conflict and maps the interface currently developing between water scarcity and political crisis and conflict. It discusses the politics of conflict over water in a manner that highlights several key components that represent the underpinnings of a model for studying international conflict over freshwater resources. To this end, the paper itself is presented in two sections. Part one is a discussion of the political ramifications that stem from the scientific characteristics of freshwater in order to understand the linkages between freshwater and political behaviour and international conflict. Part two then advances a foundational construct for a general hydropolitical conflict model that can be used to evaluate and test the basic assumptions of the hydro-conflict nexus.

You can read the full article here.